Access to a pure physical understanding of gravitation

A sneaky danger is threatening physics with inconceivable phenomena.
Measuring the outside of things is not enough any more. The developing of new physics
needs an idea about the inside of the basic particles, which cannot be measured.
In this study some proposals about the structure of those basic particles has been tried
to create a consent to the use of mathematics on the proposed inside of neutrons and
The proposals
The elementary charges (ec's) are bubbles of reacting power-particles (pp's), forming a mantle,
which sends those pp's into the inside, as well as to the outside with velocities between (c+c/2) and
(c-c/2). The pp's are couples of opposite entities, rotating into the left or into the right with respect
to their track and have an angular momentum (1/4.mpp.c.rpp), reacting in time t0 = rpp/c, giving e0.
The elementary particles neutrons and protons are compact spheres, filled with about 930
opposite ec's of both kinds. Positrons have one negative charge less.
These (more or less) logic proposals have been used for this critical study, testing the met
The solutions of consequences are given in Chapter 12 (with indirect proof) and in the Chapters
6. 7 and 8, describing the force of gravitation and the connection with quantum-mechanics.
The application of the solved consequences can be found in the other Chapters.
The greatest consequence is the contradiction with the theory of gravitation of Albert Einstein.
In this theory the concept of force has been left, and how mass bows space by using time, looks
a little mysteriously, but it shows Einstein's intuition, though totaly different as found in this study.

Results prove that gravitation is a special type of electromagnetic radiation

The gravitational constant:
G = (0.17727)x(hr)x(pi/2)x(Ng)x(re^2)x(c) / {(mn)x(mp)) = 6.673 x 10^-11 m^3 kg^-1 s^-2
where: hr = h/m^2 = 6.62618 kg.s^-1; c = 2.997925 x 10^8 m.s^-1; mn x mp = 2.8016 x 10^-54 kg^2
Ng = gravitational number = 7.536 x 10^-5; re = 6.6979 x 10^-18 m;

Frequency of the gravitational signal
vG = (Ng^1/2)x(Vp)x(tr)x(c)x(gamma) / {(4)x(pi^2)x(rn)x(rp)} = 4.6147 x 10^25 s^-1
where Ng (see above); Vp = in protons = 0.7399xc; c (see above);
gamma = {1-(Vp/(c)^2}^1/2 = 0.672; tr = period of the united conjunctions = 1.2356x10^-18 s
(rnxrp) = product nucleon-diameters = 2.6324x10^-31 m^2

Wave-length of the signal
(lambda)G = (0.97)x(re) = 6.4964 x 10^-18 m, thus c/(wavelength) = frequency (see above)

Quantum of gravitational energy
qG = (Ng^1/2)x(hr)x(Vp)x(tr)x(c) / {(4 pi)x(gamma)} = 5.591 x 10^-38 J
for values see above.

The nucleonic number
NE = (1861/1862)x(1/mn) = 5.967x10^26^-1
where mn = 1.674954x10^-27 kg

Second calculation of the gravity constant:
G = 2 x qG x NE = 6.672 x 10^-11 m^3 kg^-1 s^-2

(see page 2)

Please, click on the underlined chapter titles to see the whole reasoning.

New look at physical forces -
a test of an alternative model

0.Title-page; Preface; Index
1.Introduction, theses and consequences
2.The fundament of forces
3.The exchange of forces between elementary charges-1st test
4.Forces between electric currents in conductors- 2nd test
5.Consequences of a nucleonic ec-structure- 3rd test
6.Gravitation, as a result of a nucleonic ec-structure- 4th test
7.The period of pulsation of the elementary charges
8.Relation between the new proton-model and the QM-model-5th test
9.Dimension of energons and cosmological consequences
10.The transmission of EM-signals by energon waves
11.The physical space
12.Some data, obtained from the energon-hypothesis
15.A sketch of the Universe

Results of the tests:

-The emission by ec's of pp's with angular momentum looks inevitable.
-Calculations of forces between currents in wires match with known data.
-Neutrons filled with equal amounts of opposite charges are possible.
-Gravitation can be seen as partly neutralized ec-spins in nucleonic structures.
-The time needed for the total amount of possible charge-conjunctions in protons
· is exactly 7 times the smallest orbiting period in the H-atom, divided by 861.

"We cannot solve our problems with the same thinking we used when we created them"
Albert Einstein.

Version 2017. Not for commercial purpose.
Copyright © H.A.van Keulen -
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