CHAPTER II. STATUS, TYPIFICATION, AND PRIORITY OF NAMES

SECTION 4. LIMITATION OF THE PRINCIPLE OF PRIORITY

Article 13

13.1. Valid publication of names for plants of the different groups is treated as beginning at the following dates (for each group a work is mentioned which is treated as having been published on the date given for that group):

Non-fossil plants:

(a) SPERMATOPHYTA and PTERIDOPHYTA, 1 May 1753 (Linnaeus, Species plantarum, ed. 1), except suprageneric names, 4 August 1789 (Jussieu, Genera plantarum).
(b) MUSCI (the Sphagnaceae excepted), 1 January 1801 (Hedwig, Species muscorum).
(c) SPHAGNACEAE and HEPATICAE, 1 May 1753 (Linnaeus, Species plantarum, ed. 1), except suprageneric names, 4 August 1789 (Jussieu, Genera plantarum).
(d) FUNGI (including slime moulds and lichen-forming fungi), 1 May 1753 (Linnaeus, Species plantarum, ed. 1). Names in the Uredinales, Ustilaginales, and Gasteromycetes (s.l.) adopted by Persoon (Synopsis methodica fungorum, 31 December 1801) and names of other fungi (excluding slime moulds) adopted by Fries (Systema mycologicum, vol. 1 (1 January 1821) to 3, with additional Index (1832), and Elenchus fungorum, vol. 1-2), are sanctioned (see Art. 15). For nomenclatural purposes names given to lichens apply to their fungal component.
(e) ALGAE, 1 May 1753 (Linnaeus, Species plantarum, ed. 1). Exceptions:

NOSTOCACEAE HOMOCYSTEAE, 1 January 1892 (Gomont, “Monographie des Oscillariées”, in Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., ser. 7, 15: 263-368; 16: 91-264). The two parts of Gomont’s “Monographie”, which appeared in 1892 and 1893, respectively, are treated as having been published simultaneously on 1 January 1892.

NOSTOCACEAE HETEROCYSTEAE, 1 January 1886 (Bornet & Flahault, “Révision des Nostocacées hétérocystées”, in Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., ser. 7, 3: 323-381; 4: 343-373; 5: 51-129; 7: 177-262). The four parts of the “Révision”, which appeared in 1886, 1886, 1887, and 1888, respectively, are treated as having been published simultaneously on 1 January 1886.

DESMIDIACEAE (s. l.), 1 January 1848 (Ralfs, British Desmidieae).

OEDOGONIACEAE, 1 January 1900 (Hirn, “Monographie und Iconographie der Oedogoniaceen”, in Acta Soc. Sci. Fenn. 27(1)).

Fossil plants:

(f) ALL GROUPS, 31 December 1820 (Sternberg, Flora der Vorwelt, Versuch 1: 1-24, t. 1-13). Schlotheim’s Petrefactenkunde (1820) is regarded as published before 31 December 1820.

13.2. The group to which a name is assigned for the purposes of this Article is determined by the accepted taxonomic position of the type of the name.

Ex. 1. The genus Porella and its single species, P. pinnata, were referred by Linnaeus (1753) to the Musci; since the type specimen of P. pinnata is now accepted as belonging to the Hepaticae, the names were validly published in 1753.

Ex. 2. The designated type of Lycopodium L. (1753) is L. clavatum L. (1753) and the type specimen of this is currently accepted as a pteridophyte. Accordingly, although the genus is listed by Linnaeus among the Musci, the generic name and the names of the pteridophyte species included by Linnaeus under it were validly published in 1753.

13.3. For nomenclatural purposes, a name is treated as pertaining to a non-fossil taxon unless its type is fossil in origin. Fossil material is distinguished from non-fossil material by stratigraphic relations at the site of original occurrence. In cases of doubtful stratigraphic relations, provisions for non-fossil taxa apply.

13.4. Generic names which appear in Linnaeus’s Species plantarum, ed. 1 (1753) and ed. 2 (1762-1763), are associated with the first subsequent description given under those names in Linnaeus’s Genera plantarum, ed. 5 (1754) and ed. 6 (1764). The spelling of the generic names included in Species plantarum, ed. 1, is not to be altered because a different spelling has been used in Genera plantarum, ed. 5.

13.5. The two volumes of Linnaeus’s Species plantarum, ed. 1 (1753), which appeared in May and August, 1753, respectively, are treated as having been published simultaneously on 1 May 1753.

Ex. 3. The generic names Thea L. (Sp. Pl.: 515. 24 Mai 1753), and Camellia L. (Sp. Pl.: 698. 16 Aug 1753; Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 311. 1754), are treated as having been published simultaneously on 1 May 1753. Under Art. 11.5 the combined genus bears the name Camellia, since Sweet (Hort. Suburb. Lond.: 157. 1818), who was the first to unite the two genera, chose that name, and cited Thea as a synonym.

13.6. Names of anamorphs of fungi with a pleomorphic life cycle do not, irrespective of priority, affect the nomenclatural status of the names of the correlated holomorphs (see Art. 59.4).