CHAPTER IV. EFFECTIVE AND VALID PUBLICATION

SECTION 2. CONDITIONS AND DATES OF VALID PUBLICATION OF NAMES

Article 35

35.1. A new name or combination published on or after 1 January 1953 without a clear indication of the rank of the taxon concerned is not validly published.

35.2. For suprageneric names published on or after 1 January 1908, the use of one of the terminations specified in Rec. 16A.1-3, Art. 17.1, 18.1, 19.1, and 19.3 is accepted as an indication of the corresponding rank, unless this (a) would conflict with the explicitly designated rank of the taxon (which takes precedence), (b) would result in a rank sequence contrary to Art. 5 (in which case Art. 33.9 applies), or (c) would result in a rank sequence in which the same rank-denoting term occurs at more than one hierarchical position.

Ex. 1. Jussieu (in Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. 12: 497. 1827) proposed Zanthoxyleae without specifying the rank. Although he employed the present termination for tribe (-eae), that name, being published prior to 1908, is unranked. Zanthoxyleae Dumort. (Anal. Fam. Pl.: 45. 1829), however, is a tribal name, as Dumortier specified its rank.

Ex. 2. Nakai (Chosakuronbun Mokuroku [Ord. Fam. Trib. Nov.], 1943) validly published the names Parnassiales, Lophiolaceae, Ranzanioideae, and Urospatheae. He indicated the respective ranks of order, family, subfamily, and tribe, by virtue of their terminations, even though he did not mention these ranks explicitly.

35.3. A new name or combination published before 1 January 1953 without a clear indication of its rank is validly published provided that all other requirements for valid publication are fulfilled; it is, however, inoperative in questions of priority except for homonymy (see Art. 53.4). If it is a new name, it may serve as a basionym for subsequent combinations or a replaced synonym for nomina nova in definite ranks.

Ex. 3. The groups “Soldanellae”, “Sepincoli”, “Occidentales”, etc., were published without any indication of rank under Convolvulus L. by House (in Muhlenbergia 4: 50. 1908). The names C. [unranked] Soldanellae, etc., are validly published but they are not in any definite rank and have no status in questions of priority except for purposes of homonymy.

Ex. 4. In Carex L., the epithet Scirpinae was used in the name of a subdivision of a genus of no stated rank by Tuckerman (Enum. Meth. Caric.: 8. 1843); this taxon was assigned sectional rank by Kükenthal (in Engler, Pflanzenr. 38: 81. 1909) and its name may be cited as Carex sect. Scirpinae (Tuck.) Kük. (C. [unranked] Scirpinae Tuck.).

Ex. 5. Loesener published “Geranium andicola var. vel forma longipedicellatum” (Bull. Herb. Boissier, ser. 2, 3(2): 93. 1903) without a clear indication of infraspecific rank. The name is correctly cited as “G. andicola [unranked] longipedicellatum Loes.” The epithet was used in a subsequent combination, G. longipedicellatum (Loes.) R. Knuth (1912).

35.4. If in one whole publication (Art. 35.5), prior to 1 January 1890, only one infraspecific rank is admitted, it is considered to be that of variety unless this would be contrary to the author’s statements in the same publication.

35.5. In questions of indication of rank, all publications appearing under the same title and by the same author, such as different parts of a flora issued at different times (but not different editions of the same work), must be considered as a whole, and any statement made therein designating the rank of taxa included in the work must be considered as if it had been published together with the first instalment.

Ex. 6. In Link’s Handbuch (1829-1833) the rank-denoting term “O.” (ordo) was used in all three volumes. These names of orders cannot be considered as having been published as names of families (Art. 18.2) since the term family was used for Agaricaceae and Tremellaceae under the order Fungi in vol. 3 (pp. 272, 337; see Art. 18 Note 1). This applies to all three volumes of the Handbuch, even though vol. 3 was published later (Jul - 29 Sep 1833) than vols. 1 and 2 (4-11 Jul 1829).