CHAPTER IV. EFFECTIVE AND VALID PUBLICATION

SECTION 2. CONDITIONS AND DATES OF VALID PUBLICATION OF NAMES

Article 37

37.1. Publication on or after 1 January 1958 of the name of a new taxon of the rank of genus or below is valid only when the type of the name is indicated (see Art. 7, 8, 9, 10; but see Art. H.9 Note 1 for the names of certain hybrids).

37.2. For the name of a new species or infraspecific taxon, indication of the type as required by Art. 37.1 can be achieved by reference to an entire gathering, or part thereof, even if it consists of two or more specimens as defined in Art. 8 (see also Art. 37.7).

Ex. 1. When Cheng described “Gnetum cleistostachyum” (in Acta Phytotax. Sin. 13(4): 89. 1975) the name was not validly published because two gatherings were designated as types: K. H. Tsai 142 (as “? Typus”) and X. Jiang 127 (as “? Typus”).

Note 1. When the type is indicated by reference to a gathering that consists of more than one specimen, those specimens are syntypes (see Art. 9.4).

Ex. 2. The protologue of Laurentia frontidentata E. Wimm. (in Engler, Pflanzenr. 108: 855. 1968) includes the type statement “E. Esterhuysen No. 17070! Typus - Pret., Bol.” The name is validly published because a single gathering is cited, despite the mention of duplicate specimens (syntypes) in two different herbaria.

37.3. For the name of a new genus or subdivision of a genus, reference (direct or indirect) to one species name only, or the citation of the holotype or lectotype of one previously or simultaneously published species name only, even if that element is not explicitly designated as type, is acceptable as indication of the type (see also Art. 22.6; but see Art. 37.6). Similarly, for the name of a new species or infraspecific taxon, mention of a single specimen or gathering (Art. 37.2) or illustration (when permitted by Art. 37.4 or 37.5), even if that element is not explicitly designated as type, is acceptable as indication of the type (but see Art. 37.6).

Ex. 3.Baloghia pininsularis” was published by Guillaumin (in Mém. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., B, Bot. 8: 260. 1962) with two cited gatherings: Baumann 13813 and Baumann 13823. As the author failed to designate one of them as the type, he did not validly publish the name. Valid publication was effected when McPherson & Tirel (in Fl. Nouv.-Caléd. 14: 58. 1987) wrote “Lectotype (désigné ici): Baumann-Bodenheim 13823 (P!; iso-, Z)” while providing a full and direct reference to Guillaumin’s Latin description (Art. 45.1; see Art. 46 Ex. 9); McPherson & Tirel’s use of “lectotype” is correctable to “holotype” under Art. 9.8.

Note 2. Mere citation of a locality does not constitute mention of a single specimen or gathering. Concrete reference to some detail relating to the actual type, such as the collector’s name or collecting number or date, is required.

Note 3. Cultures of fungi and algae preserved in a metabolically inactive state are acceptable as types (Art. 8.4; see also Rec. 8B.1).

37.4. For the purpose of this Article, the type of a name of a new species or infraspecific taxon (fossils excepted: see Art. 8.5) may be an illustration prior to 1 January 2007, on or after which date, the type must be a specimen (except as provided in Art. 37.5).

37.5. For the purpose of this Article, the type of a name of a new species or infraspecific taxon of microscopic algae or microfungi (fossils excepted: see Art. 8.5) may be an effectively published illustration if there are technical difficulties of preservation or if it is impossible to preserve a specimen that would show the features attributed to the taxon by the author of the name.

37.6. For the name of a new taxon of the rank of genus or below published on or after 1 January 1990, indication of the type must include one of the words “typus” or “holotypus”, or its abbreviation, or its equivalent in a modern language (see also Rec. 37A). In the case of the name of a new genus or subdivision of a genus that is monotypic (as defined in Art. 42.2), indication of the type of the species name is sufficient.

37.7. For the name of a new species or infraspecific taxon published on or after 1 January 1990 of which the type is a specimen or unpublished illustration, the single herbarium or collection or institution in which the type is conserved must be specified.

Ex. 4. In the protologue of Setaria excurrens var. leviflora Keng ex S. L. Chen (in Bull. Nanjing Bot. Gard. 1988-1989: 3. 1990) the gathering Guangxi Team 4088 was indicated as "模 式" (Chinese for “type”) and the herbarium where the type is conserved was specified as "中 国 科 学 院 植 物 研 究 所" (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Botanical Research Institute, i.e., PE).

Note 4. Specification of the herbarium or collection or institution may be made in an abbreviated form, e.g., as given in Index herbariorum, part I, or in the World directory of collections of cultures of microorganisms.

Ex. 5. When ‘t Hart described “Sedum eriocarpum subsp. spathulifolium” (in Ot Sist. Bot. Dergisi 2(2): 7. 1995) the name was not validly published because no herbarium or collection or institution in which the holotype specimen was conserved was specified. Valid publication was effected when ‘t Hart (in Strid & Tan, Fl. Hellen. 2: 325. 2002) wrote “Type ... ‘t Hart HRT-27104 ... (U)” while providing a full and direct reference to his previously published Latin diagnosis (Art. 45.1).

Recommendation 37A

37A.1. The indication of the nomenclatural type should immediately follow the description or diagnosis and should include the Latin word “typus” or “holotypus”.