CHAPTER IV. EFFECTIVE AND VALID PUBLICATION

SECTION 2. CONDITIONS AND DATES OF VALID PUBLICATION OF NAMES

Article 43

43.1. A name of a taxon below the rank of genus is not validly published unless the name of the genus or species to which it is assigned is validly published at the same time or was validly published previously.

Ex. 1. Binary designations for six species of “Suaeda”, including “S. baccata” and “S. vera”, were published with descriptions and diagnoses by Forsskål (Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: 69-71. 1775), but he provided no description or diagnosis for the genus: these were not therefore validly published names.

Ex. 2. Müller (in Flora 63: 286. 1880) published the new genus “Phlyctidia” with the species “P. hampeana n. sp.”, “P. boliviensis” (= Phlyctis boliviensis Nyl.), “P. sorediiformis” (= Phlyctis sorediiformis Kremp.), “P. brasiliensis” (= Phlyctis brasiliensis Nyl.), and “P. andensis” (= Phlyctis andensis Nyl.). These were not, however, validly published specific names in this place, because the intended generic name “Phlyctidia” was not validly published; Müller gave no generic description or diagnosis but only a description and a diagnosis of the new species “P. hampeana”. This description and diagnosis did not validate the generic name as a descriptio generico-specifica under Art. 42 since the new genus was not monotypic. Valid publication of the name Phlyctidia was by Müller (1895), who provided a short generic diagnosis and explicitly included only two species, the names of which, P. ludoviciensis Müll. Arg. and P. boliviensis (Nyl.) Müll. Arg., were also validly published in 1895.

Note 1. This Article applies also when specific and other epithets are published under words not to be regarded as generic names (see Art. 20.4).

Ex. 3. The binary designation “Anonymos aquatica” (Walter, Fl. Carol.: 230. 1788) is not a validly published name. The correct name for the species concerned is Planera aquatica J. F. Gmel. (1791), and the date of the name, for purposes of priority, is 1791. The name must not be cited as “P. aquatica (Walter) J. F. Gmel.”

Ex. 4. Despite the existence of the generic name Scirpoides Ség. (1754), the binary designation “S. paradoxus” (Rottbøll, Descr. Pl. Rar.: 27. 1772) is not validly published since “Scirpoides” in Rottbøll’s context was a word not intended as a generic name. The first validly published name for this species is Fuirena umbellata Rottb. (1773).