Named entities in HTML

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In HTML parlance an entity is a type of encoding for characters. A 'named entity' is an encoding with an abbreviated character name, like é for é, ω for ω and ∞ for ∞. Yes, the semicolon is part of the encoding.
At the moment (XHTML 1.0, HTML 4.0, HTML 5) there are more than two thousand entities defined, but until shortly only 254 original ISO encodings were recognized by most browsers. You can find these 254 entities on the page you are reading now.
Some browsers (like Internet Explorer 9) are locked to the 254 original named entities, other browsers (like Firefox 13 and above) can display many more named entities, but not all, even if the necessary Unicode fonts are installed in the system.
Some recent versions (10, 11) of Microsoft Internet Explorer and Mozilla Firefox (26+) on modern versions of operating systems (e.g. Windows 8) can display nearly all defined named entities.
If you really have to use named entities, it is probably wise to confine the named entities to the ones listed on this page.

The entities from the XHTML 1.0 specifications, the successor of HTML 4.0.1, can be found at:
If you want the original files with the formal description of the 254 entities, see the links in Appendix A.2 'Entity Sets', from the XHTML 1.0 specification, or the files xhtml-lat1.ent, xhtml-special.ent, xhtml-symbol.ent from the zipped archive with the XHTML specification.
Larger and more recent entity sets can be found at XML Entity Definitions for Characters or section 8.5 ('Named character references') from HTML5 - A vocabulary and associated APIs for HTML and XHTML.
The XML list has 2237 entity names and the HTML 5.1 list has 2125 names for 1511 different characters. Most of these characters have a position in the Unicode space.
The HTML 5.0 list is 106 entries longer because is still has some much used characters without an ending semicolon, like &acirc instead of â. Internet Explorer supports this sloppy encoding for a number of named entities, but this is no longer part of the specification.
The XML list is 112 names longer than the HTML 5.1 list due to the isogrk1, isogrk2 and isogrk4 characters, which - as entity names - aren't supported by current browsers anyway.

If you print this document in black and white, it is possible that the column headers won't show up. They are:
* Entity by name
* The character itself, encoded as &name; as presented by your browser
* Entity by decimal number
* The character itself, encoded as &number; as presented by your browser
* Unicode designation (hexadecimal number)
* Unicode or other description of the character

I have added two extra columns named 'char' in which the characters themselves are displayed. Don't complain if you see a '?' or nothing or the wrong character or something with & in front of it. It's your browser's fault. Furthermore, many characters will only show up if you have installed the necessary Unicode fonts in your system.

* It is possible that the entity percnt is not resolved. We saw this happening in Microsoft Internet Explorer 9 on Windows Vista. Use the literal percentage sign (%) instead.
* Entity fnof is listed twice: under currencies and under mathematical symbols.

The list of the original 254 ISO entities

by namecharby numbercharUnicodeLatin with diacritics - description
AgraveÀÀÀU+00C0latin capital letter A with grave = latin capital letter A grave
agraveàààU+00E0latin small letter a with grave = latin small letter a grave
AacuteÁÁÁU+00C1latin capital letter A with acute
aacuteáááU+00E1latin small letter a with acute
AcircÂÂÂU+00C2latin capital letter A with circumflex
acircâââU+00E2latin small letter a with circumflex
AtildeÃÃÃU+00C3latin capital letter A with tilde
atildeãããU+00E3latin small letter a with tilde
AumlÄÄÄU+00C4latin capital letter A with diaeresis
aumläääU+00E4latin small letter a with diaeresis
AringÅÅÅU+00C5latin capital letter A with ring above = latin capital letter A ring
aringåååU+00E5latin small letter a with ring above = latin small letter a ring
AEligÆÆÆU+00C6latin capital letter AE = latin capital ligature AE
aeligæææU+00E6latin small letter ae = latin small ligature ae
CcedilÇÇÇU+00C7latin capital letter C with cedilla
ccedilçççU+00E7latin small letter c with cedilla
EgraveÈÈÈU+00C8latin capital letter E with grave
egraveèèèU+00E8latin small letter e with grave
EacuteÉÉÉU+00C9latin capital letter E with acute
eacuteéééU+00E9latin small letter e with acute
EcircÊÊÊU+00CAlatin capital letter E with circumflex
ecircêêêU+00EAlatin small letter e with circumflex
EumlËËËU+00CBlatin capital letter E with diaeresis
eumlëëëU+00EBlatin small letter e with diaeresis
IgraveÌÌÌU+00CClatin capital letter I with grave
igraveìììU+00EClatin small letter i with grave
IacuteÍÍÍU+00CDlatin capital letter I with acute
iacuteíííU+00EDlatin small letter i with acute
IcircÎÎÎU+00CElatin capital letter I with circumflex
icircîîîU+00EElatin small letter i with circumflex
IumlÏÏÏU+00CFlatin capital letter I with diaeresis
iumlïïïU+00EFlatin small letter i with diaeresis
NtildeÑÑÑU+00D1latin capital letter N with tilde
ntildeñññU+00F1latin small letter n with tilde
OgraveÒÒÒU+00D2latin capital letter O with grave
ograveòòòU+00F2latin small letter o with grave
OacuteÓÓÓU+00D3latin capital letter O with acute
oacuteóóóU+00F3latin small letter o with acute
OcircÔÔÔU+00D4latin capital letter O with circumflex
ocircôôôU+00F4latin small letter o with circumflex
OtildeÕÕÕU+00D5latin capital letter O with tilde
otildeõõõU+00F5latin small letter o with tilde
OumlÖÖÖU+00D6latin capital letter O with diaeresis
oumlöööU+00F6latin small letter o with diaeresis
OslashØØØU+00D8latin capital letter O with stroke = latin capital letter O slash
oslashøøøU+00F8latin small letter o with stroke = latin small letter o slash
OEligŒŒŒU+0152latin capital ligature OE
oeligœœœU+0153latin small ligature oe
ScaronŠŠŠU+0160latin capital letter S with caron
scaronšššU+0161latin small letter s with caron
szligßßßU+00DFlatin small letter sharp s = eszett
ETHÐÐÐU+00D0latin capital letter ETH
ethðððU+00F0latin small letter eth
THORNÞÞÞU+00DElatin capital letter THORN
thornþþþU+00FElatin small letter thorn with
UgraveÙÙÙU+00D9latin capital letter U with grave
ugraveùùùU+00F9latin small letter u with grave
UacuteÚÚÚU+00DAlatin capital letter U with acute
uacuteúúúU+00FAlatin small letter u with acute
UcircÛÛÛU+00DBlatin capital letter U with circumflex
ucircûûûU+00FBlatin small letter u with circumflex
UumlÜÜÜU+00DClatin capital letter U with diaeresis
uumlüüüU+00FClatin small letter u with diaeresis
YacuteÝÝÝU+00DDlatin capital letter Y with acute
yacuteýýýU+00FDlatin small letter y with acute
YumlŸŸŸU+0178latin capital letter Y with diaeresis
yumlÿÿÿU+00FFlatin small letter y with diaeresis
acute´´´U+00B4acute accent = spacing acute
cedil¸¸¸U+00B8cedilla = spacing cedilla
circˆˆˆU+02C6modifier letter circumflex accent
macr¯¯¯U+00AFmacron = spacing macron = overline = APL overbar
oline‾U+203Eoverline = spacing overscore
tilde˜˜˜U+02DCsmall tilde
uml¨¨¨U+00A8diaeresis = spacing diaeresis
by namecharby numbercharUnicodeTypography - description
copy©©©U+00A9copyright sign
trade™U+2122trade mark sign
reg®®®U+00AEregistered sign = registered trade mark sign
Dagger‡U+2021double dagger
apos'''U+0027apostrophe mark
quot"""U+0022quotation mark = APL quote
lsquo‘U+2018left single quotation mark
rsquo’U+2019right single quotation mark
ldquo“U+201Cleft double quotation mark
rdquo”U+201Dright double quotation mark
sbquo‚U+201Asingle low-9 quotation mark
bdquo„U+201Edouble low-9 quotation mark
lsaquo‹U+2039single left-pointing angle quotation mark
rsaquo›U+203Asingle right-pointing angle quotation mark
laquo«««U+00ABleft-pointing double angle quotation mark = left pointing guillemet
raquo»»»U+00BBright-pointing double angle quotation mark = right pointing guillemet
sect§§§U+00A7section sign
para¶U+00B6pilcrow sign = paragraph sign
bull•U+2022bullet = black small circle
mdash—U+2014em dash
ndash–U+2013en dash
shy­­­U+00ADsoft hyphen = discretionary hyphen
iexcl¡¡¡U+00A1inverted exclamation mark
iquest¿¿¿U+00BFinverted question mark = turned question mark
hellip…U+2026horizontal ellipsis = three dot leader
brvbar¦¦¦U+00A6broken bar = broken vertical bar
ordfªªªU+00AAfeminine ordinal indicator
ordmºººU+00BAmasculine ordinal indicator
nbsp   U+00A0no-break space = non-breaking space
emsp U+2003em space
ensp U+2002en space
thinsp U+2009thin space
zwj‍U+200Dzero width joiner RFC 2070
zwnj‌U+200Czero width non-joiner RFC 2070
lrm‎U+200Eleft-to-right mark RFC 2070
rlm‏U+200Fright-to-left mark RFC 2070
by namecharby numbercharUnicodeGreek - description
AlphaΑΑΑU+0391greek capital letter alpha
alphaαααU+03B1greek small letter alpha
BetaΒΒΒU+0392greek capital letter beta
betaβββU+03B2greek small letter beta
GammaΓΓΓU+0393greek capital letter gamma
gammaγγγU+03B3greek small letter gamma
DeltaΔΔΔU+0394greek capital letter delta
deltaδδδU+03B4greek small letter delta
EpsilonΕΕΕU+0395greek capital letter epsilon
epsilonεεεU+03B5greek small letter epsilon
ZetaΖΖΖU+0396greek capital letter zeta
zetaζζζU+03B6greek small letter zeta
EtaΗΗΗU+0397greek capital letter eta
etaηηηU+03B7greek small letter eta
ThetaΘΘΘU+0398greek capital letter theta
thetaθθθU+03B8greek small letter theta
thetasymϑϑϑU+03D1greek small letter theta symbol
IotaΙΙΙU+0399greek capital letter iota
iotaιιιU+03B9greek small letter iota
KappaΚΚΚU+039Agreek capital letter kappa
kappaκκκU+03BAgreek small letter kappa
LambdaΛΛΛU+039Bgreek capital letter lambda
lambdaλλλU+03BBgreek small letter lambda
MuΜΜΜU+039Cgreek capital letter mu
muμμμU+03BCgreek small letter mu
NuΝΝΝU+039Dgreek capital letter nu
nuνννU+03BDgreek small letter nu
XiΞΞΞU+039Egreek capital letter xi
xiξξξU+03BEgreek small letter xi
OmicronΟΟΟU+039Fgreek capital letter omicron
omicronοοοU+03BFgreek small letter omicron
PiΠΠΠU+03A0greek capital letter pi
piπππU+03C0greek small letter pi
pivϖϖϖU+03D6greek pi symbol
RhoΡΡΡU+03A1greek capital letter rho
rhoρρρU+03C1greek small letter rho
SigmaΣΣΣU+03A3greek capital letter sigma
sigmaσσσU+03C3greek small letter sigma
sigmafςςςU+03C2greek small letter final sigma
TauΤΤΤU+03A4greek capital letter tau
tauτττU+03C4greek small letter tau
UpsilonΥΥΥU+03A5greek capital letter upsilon
upsilonυυυU+03C5greek small letter upsilon
upsihϒϒϒU+03D2greek upsilon with hook symbol
PhiΦΦΦU+03A6greek capital letter phi
phiφφφU+03C6greek small letter phi
ChiΧΧΧU+03A7greek capital letter chi
chiχχχU+03C7greek small letter chi
PsiΨΨΨU+03A8greek capital letter psi
psiψψψU+03C8greek small letter psi
OmegaΩΩΩU+03A9greek capital letter omega
omegaωωωU+03C9greek small letter omega
by namecharby numbercharUnicodeMath - description
gt>>>U+003Egreater-than sign
lt<&#60;<U+003Cless-than sign
ge&#8805;U+2265greater-than or equal to
le&#8804;U+2264less-than or equal to
ne&#8800;U+2260not equal to
equiv&#8801;U+2261identical to
cong&#8773;U+2245approximately equal to
asymp&#8776;U+2248almost equal to = asymptotic to
sim&#8764;U+223Ctilde operator = varies with = similar to
prop&#8733;U+221Dproportional to
times×&#215;×U+00D7multiplication sign
divide÷&#247;÷U+00F7division sign
lowast&#8727;U+2217asterisk operator
oplus&#8853;U+2295circled plus = direct sum
otimes&#8855;U+2297circled times = vector product
middot·&#183;·U+00B7middle dot = Georgian comma = Greek middle dot
sdot&#8901;U+22C5dot operator
sum&#8721;U+2211n-ary sumation
prod&#8719;U+220Fn-ary product = product sign
part&#8706;U+2202partial differential
nabla&#8711;U+2207nabla = backward difference
radic&#8730;U+221Asquare root = radical sign
lfloor&#8970;U+230Aleft floor = apl downstile
rfloor&#8971;U+230Bright floor
lceil&#8968;U+2308left ceiling = apl upstile
rceil&#8969;U+2309right ceiling
lang&#9001;U+2329left-pointing angle bracket = bra
rang&#9002;U+232Aright-pointing angle bracket = ket
plusmn±&#177;±U+00B1plus-minus sign = plus-or-minus sign
minus&#8722;U+2212minus sign
cap&#8745;U+2229intersection = cap
cup&#8746;U+222Aunion = cup
sub&#8834;U+2282subset of
sup&#8835;U+2283superset of
sube&#8838;U+2286subset of or equal to
supe&#8839;U+2287superset of or equal to
nsub&#8836;U+2284not a subset of
empty&#8709;U+2205empty set = null set = diameter
exist&#8707;U+2203there exists
forall&#8704;U+2200for all
isin&#8712;U+2208element of
ni&#8715;U+220Bcontains as member
notin&#8713;U+2209not an element of
and&#8743;U+2227logical and = wedge
or&#8744;U+2228logical or = vee
not¬&#172;¬U+00ACnot sign = angled dash
real&#8476;U+211Cblackletter capital R = real part symbol
image&#8465;U+2111blackletter capital I = imaginary part
alefsym&#8501;U+2135alef symbol = first transfinite cardinal
weierp&#8472;U+2118script capital P = power set = Weierstrass p
microµ&#181;µU+00B5micro sign
fnofƒ&#402;ƒU+0192latin small f with hook = function = florin
perp&#8869;U+22A5up tack = orthogonal to = perpendicular
deg°&#176;°U+00B0degree sign
prime&#8242;U+2032prime = minutes = feet
Prime&#8243;U+2033double prime = seconds = inches
permil&#8240;U+2030per mille sign
frac14¼&#188;¼U+00BCvulgar fraction one quarter = fraction one quarter
frac12½&#189;½U+00BDvulgar fraction one half = fraction one half
frac34¾&#190;¾U+00BEvulgar fraction three quarters = fraction three quarters
frasl&#8260;U+2044fraction slash
sup1¹&#185;¹U+00B9superscript one = superscript digit one
sup2²&#178;²U+00B2superscript two = superscript digit two = squared
sup3³&#179;³U+00B3superscript three = superscript digit three = cubed
by namecharby numbercharUnicodeArrows - description
larr&#8592;U+2190leftwards arrow
rarr&#8594;U+2192rightwards arrow
uarr&#8593;U+2191upwards arrow
darr&#8595;U+2193downwards arrow
lArr&#8656;U+21D0leftwards double arrow
rArr&#8658;U+21D2rightwards double arrow
uArr&#8657;U+21D1upwards double arrow
dArr&#8659;U+21D3downwards double arrow
harr&#8596;U+2194left right arrow
hArr&#8660;U+21D4left right double arrow
crarr&#8629;U+21B5downwards arrow with corner leftwards = carriage return
by namecharby numbercharUnicodeCurrency - description
curren¤&#164;¤U+00A4currency sign
cent¢&#162;¢U+00A2cent sign
euro&#8364;U+20ACeuro sign
fnofƒ&#402;ƒU+0192latin small f with hook = function = florin
pound£&#163;£U+00A3pound sign
yen¥&#165;¥U+00A5yen sign = yuan sign
by namecharby numbercharUnicodeMiscellaneous - description
spades&#9824;U+2660black spade suit
clubs&#9827;U+2663black club suit = shamrock
hearts&#9829;U+2665black heart suit = valentine
diams&#9830;U+2666black diamond suit

Portions © International Organization for Standardization 1986:
Permission to copy in any form is granted for use with conforming SGML systems and applications as defined in ISO 8879, provided this notice is included in all copies.

Converted to tables by Oscar van Vlijmen, 2012-07-03
URL-alias of this page:
Last modification date: 2015-12-09

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